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As Rant4u continues its improvement on exploring new ideas, we came up with a new possibility, that is going to be available for everyone.  Learning and studying for graduate students, undergraduate students, and high school students.  This page is going to be dedicated for questing regarding any type of study.  If this idea works for the community of Rant4u followers, we will later change the page into a suitable selection.  For now, if you have a question that you want to ask, relating to school of any type, feel free to ask.  If you have a response to a question feel free to respond.  Lets teach our community that learning is important and the backbone for the world.

Mass-to-Mass Conversions in Stoichiometry

The coefficients in a balanced chemical equation provide the mole-to-mole stoichiometry among the reactants and products. The molar mass (in g/mol) can be used as the conversion factor between moles and the mass of a substance.  Thus, the balanced equation and molar masses can be used in conjunction with one another to calculate the masses involved in a reaction.

When methane (CH4) burns, it reacts with oxygen gas to produce carbon dioxide and water. The unbalanced equation for this reaction is


This type of reaction is referred to as a complete combustion reaction.

What coefficients are needed to balance the equation for the complete combustion of methane? Enter the coefficients in the order CH4, O2, CO2, and H2O, respectively.

What mass of carbon dioxide is produced from the complete combustion of 7.20×10−3g of methane?

What mass of water is produced from the complete combustion of 7.20×10−3g of methane?

What mass of oxygen is needed for the complete combustion of 7.20×10−3g of methane?

Percent Yield

The Haber-Bosch process is a very important industrial process. In the Haber-Bosch process, hydrogen gas reacts with nitrogen gas to produce ammonia according to the equation


The ammonia produced in the Haber-Bosch process has a wide range of uses, from fertilizer to pharmaceuticals. However, the production of ammonia is difficult, resulting in lower yields than those predicted from the chemical equation.

1.81g H2 is allowed to react with 10.3g N2, producing 1.22g NH3.

What is the theoretical yield for this reaction under the given conditions?

What is the percent yield for this reaction under the given conditions?

Shell Oil’s Social Media Nightmare Continues, Thanks To Skilled Pranksters Behind @ShellisPrepared

Two months ago, an “Arctic Ready” website appeared online. Festooned with Shell Oil’s logo, it purported to be a site dedicated to educating the public about Shell’s drilling for oil up North. It even included an interactive “ social media” component — an “ad generator” allowing visitors to caption photos supposedly provided by Shell. It looked a lot like Shell’s own Arctic-focused section of its site. But it is and was a fake, created by anti-Shell groups —Greenpeace and the Yes Men. And despite the fact that it has been reported as fake repeatedly, visitors continue to be duped by it and so it continues to generate controversy for Shell.

Guess which one is the fake Shell site?

Last month, Greenpeace, the Yes Men, and members of the Occupy movement used YouTube to make a supposed Shell event gone horribly wrong — that they had staged — go viral. This week, they created a fake Shell “social media response team” Twitter account to make ads generated by their Arctic Ready website go viral. The account pretended to be frantically trying to contain the spread of ads created on the fake site. Those drawn to the site, thinking it was real, thought it was a case of social media going horribly wrong, with “Shell’s” ad generator resulting in “embarrassing” ads like these…  Read More

Google-Backed Wind Power Venture Approved By Department Of The Interior

A Google-backed project to build a heavy duty transmission line for electric power generated with wind turbines overcame a regulatory challenge Monday, when the Department of the Interior found after a year-long review that there is no competitive interest for the use of certain areas of the outer continental shelf.

Image: Atlantic Wind Connection

The Atlantic Wind Connection is a proposed transmission backbone that would run along 250 miles of coast from New Jersey to Virginia, connecting the mainland with offshore wind turbines that could generate as much as 7,000 MW of electricity for the grid. The project is one of a number of sustainable initiatives Google has promoted as the company has grown, including seeking company-wide carbon neutrality and investments of nearly $1 billion to date in green energy.

“We’re excited about the potential of this project to help the states meet their renewable energy goals by providing a platform that can rapidly accelerate the deployment of clean offshore wind at lower total cost,” said Rich Needham, Google’s director of green business operations, in a press release. “Transmission is one of the key constraints to the wider adoption of clean energy, so this project was a natural fit with our corporate goal of investing in attractive renewable energy projects that can have dramatic impact.”  Read More

Eclipse Glasses Sold Out in Advance of Sunday’s Solar Eclipse

“I think we had about 1,500 glasses on Monday and they were gone within about two hours after we opened,” said Ashley Rich, patient services supervisor at Shasta Eye Medical Group in Redding, according to, the web site for the local newspaper.

The Fleischmann Planetarium and Science Center in Reno, Nevada sold out earlier this week and ordered another 10,000 pair, according to a local web site.

Looking as the sun without proper protection can damage your eyes. Sunglasses are NOT proper protection.

If you know a welder, you could be in luck. A safe substitute for eclipse glasses is No. 14 welder’s glass, used in goggles. There are also several clever ways to view the eclipse safely indirectly, including easy-to-make pinhole cameras and simply standing under a tree to look for dappled light that will reveal an image of the eclipse on the ground.  Read More

Oil and Gas Industry Moving Aggressively to Silence Critics

At an industry public relations conference last year, Michael Kehs of Chesapeake Energy described a Wall Street Journal op-ed to gathered oil and gas officials, saying it pointed out the industry’s “credibility problem.”

“And I’m sure some of it relates to defensiveness,” Kehs added. (MP3 Audio)

Small wonder.

For years, the oil and gas industry has adopted a war-like mentality towards its critics. When confronted with problems caused by drilling and fracking, instead of acknowledging them and working to prevent more, their approach has too often been to cover up the issues while attacking any critics who make problems known publicly.

This pattern has sharply accelerated in recent months.

Earlier this month, Al Armendariz, the EPA’s regional administrator for the oil-and-gas rich states of Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, sent his letter of resignation to Lisa Jackson, head of the EPA. Mr. Armendariz had come under heavy fire over comments he made two years ago at a local government meeting in Texas.

In explaining his law enforcement philosophy, he analogized his agency’s strategy to the early Romans, who he said would “crucify” law-breakers to make examples of them. After a video of these remarks was circulated last week by Sen. James Inhofe, Republican from Oklahoma, who counts the oil and gas industry as one of his largest donors, a firestorm of controversy broke out.  Read More

How Brazil Is Making an Example of Chevron

How Brazil Is Making an Example of ChevronIllustration by 731

Last Nov. 7 something went wrong at a deep-sea oil well operated by Chevron (CVX) 230 miles northeast of Rio de Janeiro. As a massive drill bit punctured reservoir N560, roughly 3,500 feet beneath the ocean floor, monitors revealed pressure much higher than technicians expected. The next day a routine flyover of the field, called Frade, in the Campos Basin, revealed oil on the water’s surface.

Chevron dispatched remote-controlled submarines, which found oil seeping through fissures on the sea floor directly above N560. The blowout preventer, a three-story-tall valve assembly, automatically cut off oil flow at the wellhead. This would not become another BP (BP) disaster, in which the blowout preventer notoriously failed. Still, George Buck, president of Chevron’s Brazil subsidiary, ordered the Frade well shut down. Chevron sent 18 vessels in rotation to contain the oil on the surface, and it readied pyramid-shaped steel caps to cover the seepage points. Workers completed the job in just four days. Buck saw the situation as under control. And technically, it was.

A petroleum engineer in his mid-forties, Buck has an MBA and has worked for Chevron for 23 years. He is 6-foot-5, slender, soft-spoken, and earnest to the point of social awkwardness. He arrived in Brazil in 2009, having worked from Alaska to Texas to Indonesia. He lives with his family in Rio’s fashionable Ipanema beach district. He is not a man about town. After three years in Brazil, he speaks little Portuguese, relying heavily on translators. Nevertheless, on the Frade spill, Buck thought he had made himself quite clear. “Chevron takes full responsibility for this incident,” he said at a press conference in Rio on Nov. 21. At a congressional hearing in Brasília two days later, he added, “Sincere apologies to the Brazilian people and the Brazilian government.”  Read More

Oil Drops to 2012 Low on Chinese Output, Europe Debt

Oil dropped to a 2012 low after China’s industrial growth unexpectedly slowed in April and concern grew that Europe’s debt crisis will worsen, reducing fuel consumption.

Futures fell 1 percent after industrial output increased in China by the least since 2009. Prices also slumped as Spain said it will force lenders to raise provisions against real estate holdings and JPMorgan Chase & Co. (JPM) reported a $2 billion trading loss. Crude declined a second week after U.S. supplies rose to a 21-year high.

“There are a combination of factors pushing oil lower,” said Stephen Schork, president of the Schork Group in Villanova, Pennsylvania. “There’s a heck of a lot of oil out there, so supply isn’t a problem, and recent economic data along with the problems in Europe point to lower demand.”

Crude for June delivery fell 95 cents to $96.13 a barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange, the lowest settlement since Dec. 19. Prices slipped 2.4 percent this week and are down 2.7 percent this year.

Oil in New York may extend losses after settling below the 200-day moving average for the first time since Dec. 19. The technical indicator stood at $96.27. Buy and sell orders tend to be clustered near chart-support levels.  Read More

A NASA Weather ‘Eye in the Sky’ Marks 10 Years

Global Carbon Dioxide Transport from AIRS Data, July 2009This image was created with data acquired by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument (AIRS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite during July 2009. Image Credit: NASA/JPL

May 03, 2012

For 10 years, it has silently swooped through space in its orbital perch 438 miles (705 kilometers) above Earth, its nearly 2,400 spectral “eyes” peering into Earth’s atmosphere, watching. But there’s nothing alien about NASA’s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, or AIRS, instrument, a “monster” of weather and climate research that celebrates its 10th birthday in orbit May 4.

AIRS, built by BAE Systems, Boston, under the direction of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is one of six instruments flying on NASA’s Aqua spacecraft as part of NASA’s Earth Observing System. AIRS, along with its partner microwave instrument, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A), has faithfully measured our planet’s atmospheric temperature, water vapor, clouds and greenhouse gases with unprecedented accuracy and stability. Over the past decade, AIRS and AMSU-A have improved our understanding of Earth’s global water and energy cycles, climate change and trends and how Earth’s climate system is responding to increased greenhouse gases.

Studies have shown AIRS has improved global weather prediction more than any other single satellite instrument in the past 10 years. In 2006, a group led by John Le Marshall of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration demonstrated that use of AIRS data in weather forecasting models significantly improved forecast “skill” — the name of the calculation meteorologists use to quantify how close a forecast is to actual observed weather conditions.

“AIRS has performed beyond expectation, exceeding its mission objectives,” said AIRS Project Manager Tom Pagano of JPL. “The knowledge we’ve gained through AIRS has advanced our understanding of weather and climate, and demonstrated an important measurement technology. While the team can be proud of what’s been accomplished, we continue to look forward to new discoveries as we explore the connection between extreme weather and climate change.”  Read More

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